Debugging Knative Eventing

This is an evolving document on how to debug a non-working Knative Eventing setup.

Audience

This document is intended for people that are familiar with the object model of Knative Eventing. You don’t need to be an expert, but do need to know roughly how things fit together.

Version

This Debugging content supports version v0.8.0 or later of Knative Eventing and the Eventing-contrib resources.

Prerequisites

  1. Setup Knative Eventing and an Eventing-contrib resource.

Example

This guide uses an example consisting of an event source that sends events to a function.

src -> chan -> sub -> svc -> fn

See example.yaml for the entire YAML. For any commands in this guide to work, you must apply example.yaml:

kubectl apply --filename example.yaml

Triggering Events

Knative events will occur whenever a Kubernetes Event occurs in the knative-debug namespace. We can cause this to occur with the following commands:

kubectl --namespace knative-debug run to-be-deleted --image=image-that-doesnt-exist --restart=Never
# 5 seconds is arbitrary. We want K8s to notice that the Pod needs to be scheduled and generate at least one event.
sleep 5
kubectl --namespace knative-debug delete pod to-be-deleted

Then we can see the Kubernetes Events (note that these are not Knative events!):

kubectl --namespace knative-debug get events

This should produce output along the lines of:

LAST SEEN   FIRST SEEN   COUNT     NAME                             KIND      SUBOBJECT                        TYPE      REASON                   SOURCE                                         MESSAGE
20s         20s          1         to-be-deleted.157aadb9f376fc4e   Pod                                        Normal    Scheduled                default-scheduler                              Successfully assigned knative-debug/to-be-deleted to gke-kn24-default-pool-c12ac83b-pjf2

Where are my events?

You’ve applied example.yaml and you are inspecting fn’s logs:

kubectl --namespace knative-debug logs -l app=fn -c user-container

But you don’t see any events arrive. Where is the problem?

Control Plane

We will first check the control plane, to ensure everything should be working properly.

Resources

The first thing to check are all the created resources, do their statuses contain ready true?

We will attempt to determine why from the most basic pieces out:

  1. fn - The Deployment has no dependencies inside Knative.
  2. svc - The Service has no dependencies inside Knative.
  3. chan - The Channel depends on its backing channel implementation and somewhat depends on sub.
  4. src - The Source depends on chan.
  5. sub - The Subscription depends on both chan and svc.
fn
kubectl --namespace knative-debug get deployment fn -o jsonpath='{.status.availableReplicas}'

We want to see 1. If you don’t, then you need to debug the Deployment. Is there anything obviously wrong mentioned in the status?

kubectl --namespace knative-debug get deployment fn --output yaml

If it is not obvious what is wrong, then you need to debug the Deployment, which is out of scope of this document.

Verify that the Pod is Ready:

kubectl --namespace knative-debug get pod -l app=fn -o jsonpath='{.items[*].status.conditions[?(@.type == "Ready")].status}'

This should return True. If it doesn’t, then try to debug the Deployment using the Kubernetes Application Debugging guide.

svc
kubectl --namespace knative-debug get service svc

We just want to ensure this exists and has the correct name. If it doesn’t exist, then you probably need to re-apply example.yaml.

Verify it points at the expected pod.

svcLabels=$(kubectl --namespace knative-debug get service svc -o go-template='{{range $k, $v := .spec.selector}}{{ $k }}={{ $v }},{{ end }}' | sed 's/.$//' )
kubectl --namespace knative-debug get pods -l $svcLabels

This should return a single Pod, which if you inspect is the one generated by fn.

chan

chan uses the in-memory-channel. This is a very basic channel and has few failure modes that will be exhibited in chan’s status.

kubectl --namespace knative-debug get channel.messaging.knative.dev chan -o jsonpath='{.status.conditions[?(@.type == "Ready")].status}'

This should return True. If it doesn’t, get the full resource:

kubectl --namespace knative-debug get channel.messaging.knative.dev chan --output yaml

If status is completely missing, it implies that something is wrong with the in-memory-channel controller. See Channel Controller.

Next verify that chan is addressable:

kubectl --namespace knative-debug get channel.messaging.knative.dev chan -o jsonpath='{.status.address.hostname}'

This should return a URI, likely ending in ‘.cluster.local’. If it doesn’t, then it implies that something went wrong during reconciliation. See Channel Controller.

We will verify that the two resources that the chan creates exist and are Ready.

Service

chan creates a K8s Service.

kubectl --namespace knative-debug get service -l messaging.knative.dev/role=in-memory-channel

It’s spec is completely unimportant, as Istio will ignore it. It just needs to exist so that src can send events to it. If it doesn’t exist, it implies that something went wrong during chan reconciliation. See Channel Controller.

src

src is a ApiServerSource.

First we will verify that src is writing to chan.

kubectl --namespace knative-debug get apiserversource src -o jsonpath='{.spec.sink}'

Which should return map[apiVersion:messaging.knative.dev/v1alpha1 kind:Channel name:chan]. If it doesn’t, then src was setup incorrectly and its spec needs to be fixed. Fixing should be as simple as updating its spec to have the correct sink (see example.yaml).

Now that we know src is sending to chan, let’s verify that it is Ready.

kubectl --namespace knative-debug get apiserversource src -o jsonpath='{.status.conditions[?(.type == "Ready")].status}'

sub

sub is a Subscription from chan to fn.

Verify that sub is Ready:

kubectl --namespace knative-debug get subscription sub -o jsonpath='{.status.conditions[?(.type == "Ready")].status}'

This should return True. If it doesn’t then, look at all the status entries.

kubectl --namespace knative-debug get subscription sub --output yaml

Controllers

Each of the resources has a Controller that is watching it. As of today, they tend to do a poor job of writing failure status messages and events, so we need to look at the Controller’s logs.

Deployment Controller

The Kubernetes Deployment Controller, controlling fn, is out of scope for this document.

Service Controller

The Kubernetes Service Controller, controlling svc, is out of scope for this document.

Channel Controller

There is not a single Channel Controller. Instead, there is one Controller for each Channel CRD. chan uses the InMemoryChannel Channel CRD, whose Controller is:

kubectl --namespace knative-eventing get pod -l messaging.knative.dev/channel=in-memory-channel,messaging.knative.dev/role=controller --output yaml

See its logs with:

kubectl --namespace knative-eventing logs -l messaging.knative.dev/channel=in-memory-channel,messaging.knative.dev/role=controller

Pay particular attention to any lines that have a logging level of warning or error.

Source Controller

Each Source will have its own Controller. src is a ApiServerSource, so its Controller is:

kubectl --namespace knative-eventing get pod -l app=sources-controller

This is actually a single binary that runs multiple Source Controllers, importantly including ApiServerSource Controller.

ApiServerSource Controller

The ApiServerSource Controller is run in the same binary as some other Source Controllers from Eventing. It is:

kubectl --namespace knative-debug get pod -l eventing.knative.dev/sourceName=src,eventing.knative.dev/source=apiserver-source-controller

View its logs with:

kubectl --namespace knative-debug logs -l eventing.knative.dev/sourceName=src,eventing.knative.dev/source=apiserver-source-controller

Pay particular attention to any lines that have a logging level of warning or error.

Subscription Controller

The Subscription Controller controls sub. It attempts to resolve the addresses that a Channel should send events to, and once resolved, inject those into the Channel’s spec.subscribable.

kubectl --namespace knative-eventing get pod -l app=eventing-controller

View its logs with:

kubectl --namespace knative-eventing logs -l app=eventing-controller

Pay particular attention to any lines that have a logging level of warning or error.

Data Plane

The entire Control Plane looks healthy, but we’re still not getting any events. Now we need to investigate the data plane.

The Knative event takes the following path:

  1. Event is generated by src.

    • In this case, it is caused by having a Kubernetes Event trigger it, but as far as Knative is concerned, the Source is generating the event denovo (from nothing).
  2. src is POSTing the event to chan’s address, http://chan-kn-channel.knative-debug.svc.cluster.local.

  3. The Channel Dispatcher receives the request and introspects the Host header to determine which Channel it corresponds to. It sees that it corresponds to knative-debug/chan so forwards the request to the subscribers defined in sub, in particular svc, which is backed by fn.

  4. fn receives the request and logs it.

We will investigate components in the order in which events should travel.

Channel Dispatcher

The Channel Dispatcher is the component that receives POSTs pushing events into Channels and then POSTs to subscribers of those Channels when an event is received. For the in-memory-channel used in this example, there is a single binary that handles both the receiving and dispatching sides for all in-memory-channel Channels.

First we will inspect the Dispatcher’s logs to see if it is anything obvious:

kubectl --namespace knative-eventing logs -l messaging.knative.dev/channel=in-memory-channel,messaging.knative.dev/role=dispatcher -c dispatcher

Ideally we will see lines like:

{"level":"info","ts":"2019-08-16T13:50:55.424Z","logger":"inmemorychannel-dispatcher.in-memory-channel-dispatcher","caller":"provisioners/message_receiver.go:147","msg":"Request mapped to channel: knative-debug/chan-kn-channel","knative.dev/controller":"in-memory-channel-dispatcher"}
{"level":"info","ts":"2019-08-16T13:50:55.425Z","logger":"inmemorychannel-dispatcher.in-memory-channel-dispatcher","caller":"provisioners/message_dispatcher.go:112","msg":"Dispatching message to http://svc.knative-debug.svc.cluster.local/","knative.dev/controller":"in-memory-channel-dispatcher"}
{"level":"info","ts":"2019-08-16T13:50:55.981Z","logger":"inmemorychannel-dispatcher.in-memory-channel-dispatcher","caller":"provisioners/message_receiver.go:140","msg":"Received request for chan-kn-channel.knative-debug.svc.cluster.local","knative.dev/controller":"in-memory-channel-dispatcher"}

Which shows that the request is being received and then sent to svc, which is returning a 2XX response code (likely 200, 202, or 204).

However if we see something like:

{"level":"info","ts":"2019-08-16T16:10:16.859Z","logger":"inmemorychannel-dispatcher.in-memory-channel-dispatcher","caller":"provisioners/message_receiver.go:140","msg":"Received request for chan-kn-channel.knative-debug.svc.cluster.local","knative.dev/controller":"in-memory-channel-dispatcher"}
{"level":"info","ts":"2019-08-16T16:10:16.859Z","logger":"inmemorychannel-dispatcher.in-memory-channel-dispatcher","caller":"provisioners/message_receiver.go:147","msg":"Request mapped to channel: knative-debug/chan-kn-channel","knative.dev/controller":"in-memory-channel-dispatcher"}
{"level":"info","ts":"2019-08-16T16:10:16.859Z","logger":"inmemorychannel-dispatcher.in-memory-channel-dispatcher","caller":"provisioners/message_dispatcher.go:112","msg":"Dispatching message to http://svc.knative-debug.svc.cluster.local/","knative.dev/controller":"in-memory-channel-dispatcher"}
{"level":"error","ts":"2019-08-16T16:10:38.169Z","logger":"inmemorychannel-dispatcher.in-memory-channel-dispatcher","caller":"fanout/fanout_handler.go:121","msg":"Fanout had an error","knative.dev/controller":"in-memory-channel-dispatcher","error":"Unable to complete request Post http://svc.knative-debug.svc.cluster.local/: dial tcp 10.4.44.156:80: i/o timeout","stacktrace":"knative.dev/eventing/pkg/provisioners/fanout.(*Handler).dispatch\n\t/Users/xxxxxx/go/src/knative.dev/eventing/pkg/provisioners/fanout/fanout_handler.go:121\nknative.dev/eventing/pkg/provisioners/fanout.createReceiverFunction.func1.1\n\t/Users/i512777/go/src/knative.dev/eventing/pkg/provisioners/fanout/fanout_handler.go:95"}

Then we know there was a problem posting to http://svc.knative-debug.svc.cluster.local/.

TODO Finish this section. Especially after the Channel Dispatcher emits K8s events about failures.

fn

TODO Fill in this section.

TODO Finish the guide.