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Transport Encryption for Knative Eventing

Flag name: transport-encryption

Stage: Alpha, disabled by default

Tracking issue: #5957

Overview

By default, event delivery within the cluster is unencrypted. This limits the types of events which can be transmitted to those of low compliance value (or a relaxed compliance posture) or, alternatively, forces administrators to use a service mesh or encrypted CNI to encrypt the traffic, which poses many challenges to Knative Eventing adopters.

Knative Brokers and Channels provides HTTPS endpoints to receive events. Given that these endpoints typically do not have public DNS names (e.g. svc.cluster.local or the like), these need to be signed by a non-public CA (cluster or organization specific CA).

Event producers are be able to connect to HTTPS endpoints with cluster-internal CA certificates.

Prerequisites

Installation

Eventing components use cert-manager issuers and certificates to provision TLS certificates and in the release assets, we release such default issuers and certificates that can be customized as necessary.

  1. Install issuers and certificates, run the following command:
    kubectl apply -f https://github.com/knative/eventing/releases/download/knative-v1.13.1/eventing-tls-networking.yaml
    
  2. Verify issuers and certificates are ready
    kubectl get certificates.cert-manager.io -n knative-eventing
    
    Example output:
    NAME                           READY   SECRET                         AGE
    imc-dispatcher-server-tls      True    imc-dispatcher-server-tls      14s
    mt-broker-filter-server-tls    True    mt-broker-filter-server-tls    14s
    mt-broker-ingress-server-tls   True    mt-broker-ingress-server-tls   14s
    selfsigned-ca                  True    eventing-ca                    14s
    

Transport Encryption configuration

The transport-encryption feature flag is an enum configuration that configures how Addressables ( Broker, Channel, Sink) should accept events.

The possible values for transport-encryption are:

  • disabled (this is equivalent to the current behavior)
    • Addressables may accept events to HTTPS endpoints
    • Producers may send events to HTTPS endpoints
  • permissive
    • Addressables should accept events on both HTTP and HTTPS endpoints
    • Addressables should advertise both HTTP and HTTPS endpoints
    • Producers should prefer sending events to HTTPS endpoints, if available
  • strict
    • Addressables must not accept events to non-HTTPS endpoints
    • Addressables must only advertise HTTPS endpoints

For example, to enable strict transport encryption, the config-features ConfigMap will look like the following:

apiVersion: v1
kind: ConfigMap
metadata:
  name: config-features
  namespace: knative-eventing
data:
  transport-encryption: "strict"

Trusting CA for a specific event sender

Event sources, triggers or subscriptions are considered event senders and they can be configured to trust specific CA certificates.

Important

The CA certs must be PEM formatted certificates. Since it's a multi-line YAML string make sure that the CACerts value is indented correctly, otherwise when creating the resource it will be rejected.

Triggers and subscriptions can be configured as follow:

spec:
  # ...

  subscriber:
    uri: https://mycorp-internal-example.com/v1/api
    CACerts: |-
      -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
      MIIFWjCCA0KgAwIBAgIQT9Irj/VkyDOeTzRYZiNwYDANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQsFADBH
      MQswCQYDVQQGEwJDTjERMA8GA1UECgwIVW5pVHJ1c3QxJTAjBgNVBAMMHFVDQSBF
      eHRlbmRlZCBWYWxpZGF0aW9uIFJvb3QwHhcNMTUwMzEzMDAwMDAwWhcNMzgxMjMx
      MDAwMDAwWjBHMQswCQYDVQQGEwJDTjERMA8GA1UECgwIVW5pVHJ1c3QxJTAjBgNV
      BAMMHFVDQSBFeHRlbmRlZCBWYWxpZGF0aW9uIFJvb3QwggIiMA0GCSqGSIb3DQEB
      AQUAA4ICDwAwggIKAoICAQCpCQcoEwKwmeBkqh5DFnpzsZGgdT6o+uM4AHrsiWog
      D4vFsJszA1qGxliG1cGFu0/GnEBNyr7uaZa4rYEwmnySBesFK5pI0Lh2PpbIILvS
      sPGP2KxFRv+qZ2C0d35qHzwaUnoEPQc8hQ2E0B92CvdqFN9y4zR8V05WAT558aop
      O2z6+I9tTcg1367r3CTueUWnhbYFiN6IXSV8l2RnCdm/WhUFhvMJHuxYMjMR83dk
      sHYf5BA1FxvyDrFspCqjc/wJHx4yGVMR59mzLC52LqGj3n5qiAno8geK+LLNEOfi
      c0CTuwjRP+H8C5SzJe98ptfRr5//lpr1kXuYC3fUfugH0mK1lTnj8/FtDw5lhIpj
      VMWAtuCeS31HJqcBCF3RiJ7XwzJE+oJKCmhUfzhTA8ykADNkUVkLo4KRel7sFsLz
      KuZi2irbWWIQJUoqgQtHB0MGcIfS+pMRKXpITeuUx3BNr2fVUbGAIAEBtHoIppB/
      TuDvB0GHr2qlXov7z1CymlSvw4m6WC31MJixNnI5fkkE/SmnTHnkBVfblLkWU41G
      sx2VYVdWf6/wFlthWG82UBEL2KwrlRYaDh8IzTY0ZRBiZtWAXxQgXy0MoHgKaNYs
      1+lvK9JKBZP8nm9rZ/+I8U6laUpSNwXqxhaN0sSZ0YIrO7o1dfdRUVjzyAfd5LQD
      fwIDAQABo0IwQDAdBgNVHQ4EFgQU2XQ65DA9DfcS3H5aBZ8eNJr34RQwDwYDVR0T
      AQH/BAUwAwEB/zAOBgNVHQ8BAf8EBAMCAYYwDQYJKoZIhvcNAQELBQADggIBADaN
      l8xCFWQpN5smLNb7rhVpLGsaGvdftvkHTFnq88nIua7Mui563MD1sC3AO6+fcAUR
      ap8lTwEpcOPlDOHqWnzcSbvBHiqB9RZLcpHIojG5qtr8nR/zXUACE/xOHAbKsxSQ
      VBcZEhrxH9cMaVr2cXj0lH2RC47skFSOvG+hTKv8dGT9cZr4QQehzZHkPJrgmzI5
      c6sq1WnIeJEmMX3ixzDx/BR4dxIOE/TdFpS/S2d7cFOFyrC78zhNLJA5wA3CXWvp
      4uXViI3WLL+rG761KIcSF3Ru/H38j9CHJrAb+7lsq+KePRXBOy5nAliRn+/4Qh8s
      t2j1da3Ptfb/EX3C8CSlrdP6oDyp+l3cpaDvRKS+1ujl5BOWF3sGPjLtx7dCvHaj
      2GU4Kzg1USEODm8uNBNA4StnDG1KQTAYI1oyVZnJF+A83vbsea0rWBmirSwiGpWO
      vpaQXUJXxPkUAzUrHC1RVwinOt4/5Mi0A3PCwSaAuwtCH60NryZy2sy+s6ODWA2C
      xR9GUeOcGMyNm43sSet1UNWMKFnKdDTajAshqx7qG+XH/RU+wBeq+yNuJkbL+vmx
      cmtpzyKEC2IPrNkZAJSidjzULZrtBJ4tBmIQN1IchXIbJ+XMxjHsN+xjWZsLHXbM
      fjKaiJUINlK73nZfdklJrX+9ZSCyycErdhh2n1ax
      -----END CERTIFICATE-----

Similarly, sources can be configured as follow:

spec:
  # ...

  sink:
    uri: https://mycorp-internal-example.com/v1/api
    CACerts: |-
      -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
      MIIFWjCCA0KgAwIBAgIQT9Irj/VkyDOeTzRYZiNwYDANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQsFADBH
      MQswCQYDVQQGEwJDTjERMA8GA1UECgwIVW5pVHJ1c3QxJTAjBgNVBAMMHFVDQSBF
      eHRlbmRlZCBWYWxpZGF0aW9uIFJvb3QwHhcNMTUwMzEzMDAwMDAwWhcNMzgxMjMx
      MDAwMDAwWjBHMQswCQYDVQQGEwJDTjERMA8GA1UECgwIVW5pVHJ1c3QxJTAjBgNV
      BAMMHFVDQSBFeHRlbmRlZCBWYWxpZGF0aW9uIFJvb3QwggIiMA0GCSqGSIb3DQEB
      AQUAA4ICDwAwggIKAoICAQCpCQcoEwKwmeBkqh5DFnpzsZGgdT6o+uM4AHrsiWog
      D4vFsJszA1qGxliG1cGFu0/GnEBNyr7uaZa4rYEwmnySBesFK5pI0Lh2PpbIILvS
      sPGP2KxFRv+qZ2C0d35qHzwaUnoEPQc8hQ2E0B92CvdqFN9y4zR8V05WAT558aop
      O2z6+I9tTcg1367r3CTueUWnhbYFiN6IXSV8l2RnCdm/WhUFhvMJHuxYMjMR83dk
      sHYf5BA1FxvyDrFspCqjc/wJHx4yGVMR59mzLC52LqGj3n5qiAno8geK+LLNEOfi
      c0CTuwjRP+H8C5SzJe98ptfRr5//lpr1kXuYC3fUfugH0mK1lTnj8/FtDw5lhIpj
      VMWAtuCeS31HJqcBCF3RiJ7XwzJE+oJKCmhUfzhTA8ykADNkUVkLo4KRel7sFsLz
      KuZi2irbWWIQJUoqgQtHB0MGcIfS+pMRKXpITeuUx3BNr2fVUbGAIAEBtHoIppB/
      TuDvB0GHr2qlXov7z1CymlSvw4m6WC31MJixNnI5fkkE/SmnTHnkBVfblLkWU41G
      sx2VYVdWf6/wFlthWG82UBEL2KwrlRYaDh8IzTY0ZRBiZtWAXxQgXy0MoHgKaNYs
      1+lvK9JKBZP8nm9rZ/+I8U6laUpSNwXqxhaN0sSZ0YIrO7o1dfdRUVjzyAfd5LQD
      fwIDAQABo0IwQDAdBgNVHQ4EFgQU2XQ65DA9DfcS3H5aBZ8eNJr34RQwDwYDVR0T
      AQH/BAUwAwEB/zAOBgNVHQ8BAf8EBAMCAYYwDQYJKoZIhvcNAQELBQADggIBADaN
      l8xCFWQpN5smLNb7rhVpLGsaGvdftvkHTFnq88nIua7Mui563MD1sC3AO6+fcAUR
      ap8lTwEpcOPlDOHqWnzcSbvBHiqB9RZLcpHIojG5qtr8nR/zXUACE/xOHAbKsxSQ
      VBcZEhrxH9cMaVr2cXj0lH2RC47skFSOvG+hTKv8dGT9cZr4QQehzZHkPJrgmzI5
      c6sq1WnIeJEmMX3ixzDx/BR4dxIOE/TdFpS/S2d7cFOFyrC78zhNLJA5wA3CXWvp
      4uXViI3WLL+rG761KIcSF3Ru/H38j9CHJrAb+7lsq+KePRXBOy5nAliRn+/4Qh8s
      t2j1da3Ptfb/EX3C8CSlrdP6oDyp+l3cpaDvRKS+1ujl5BOWF3sGPjLtx7dCvHaj
      2GU4Kzg1USEODm8uNBNA4StnDG1KQTAYI1oyVZnJF+A83vbsea0rWBmirSwiGpWO
      vpaQXUJXxPkUAzUrHC1RVwinOt4/5Mi0A3PCwSaAuwtCH60NryZy2sy+s6ODWA2C
      xR9GUeOcGMyNm43sSet1UNWMKFnKdDTajAshqx7qG+XH/RU+wBeq+yNuJkbL+vmx
      cmtpzyKEC2IPrNkZAJSidjzULZrtBJ4tBmIQN1IchXIbJ+XMxjHsN+xjWZsLHXbM
      fjKaiJUINlK73nZfdklJrX+9ZSCyycErdhh2n1ax
      -----END CERTIFICATE-----

Verifying that the feature is working

Save the following YAML into a file called default-broker-example.yaml

# default-broker-example.yaml

apiVersion: eventing.knative.dev/v1
kind: Broker
metadata:
  name: br

---
apiVersion: eventing.knative.dev/v1
kind: Trigger
metadata:
  name: tr
spec:
  broker: br
  subscriber:
    ref:
      apiVersion: v1
      kind: Service
      name: event-display
---
apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
metadata:
  name: event-display
spec:
  selector:
    app: event-display
  ports:
    - protocol: TCP
      port: 80
      targetPort: 8080
---
apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
metadata:
  name: event-display
  labels:
    app: event-display
spec:
  containers:
    - name: event-display
      image: gcr.io/knative-releases/knative.dev/eventing/cmd/event_display
      imagePullPolicy: Always
      ports:
        - containerPort: 8080

Apply the default-broker-example.yaml file into a test namespace transport-encryption-test:

kubectl create namespace transport-encryption-test

kubectl apply -n transport-encryption-test -f defautl-broker-example.yaml

Verify that addresses are all HTTPS:

kubectl get brokers.eventing.knative.dev -n transport-encryption-test br -oyaml

Example output:

apiVersion: eventing.knative.dev/v1
kind: Broker
metadata:
  # ...
  name: br
  namespace: transport-encryption-test
# ...
status:
  address:
    CACerts: |
      -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
      MIIBbzCCARagAwIBAgIQAur7vdEcreEWSEQatCYlNjAKBggqhkjOPQQDAjAYMRYw
      FAYDVQQDEw1zZWxmc2lnbmVkLWNhMB4XDTIzMDgwMzA4MzA1N1oXDTIzMTEwMTA4
      MzA1N1owGDEWMBQGA1UEAxMNc2VsZnNpZ25lZC1jYTBZMBMGByqGSM49AgEGCCqG
      SM49AwEHA0IABBqkD9lAwrnXCo/OOdpKzJROSbzCeC73FE/Np+/j8n862Ox5xYwJ
      tAp/o3RDpDa3omhzqZoYumqdtneozGFY/zGjQjBAMA4GA1UdDwEB/wQEAwICpDAP
      BgNVHRMBAf8EBTADAQH/MB0GA1UdDgQWBBSHoKjXzfxfudt3mVGU3VudSi6TrTAK
      BggqhkjOPQQDAgNHADBEAiA5z0/TpD7T6vRpN9VQisQMtum/Zg3tThnYA5nFnAW7
      KAIgKR/EzW7f8BPcnlcgXt5kp3Fdqye1SAkjxZzr2a0Zik8=
      -----END CERTIFICATE-----
    name: https
    url: https://broker-ingress.knative-eventing.svc.cluster.local/transport-encryption-test/br
  addresses:
  - CACerts: |
      -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
      MIIBbzCCARagAwIBAgIQAur7vdEcreEWSEQatCYlNjAKBggqhkjOPQQDAjAYMRYw
      FAYDVQQDEw1zZWxmc2lnbmVkLWNhMB4XDTIzMDgwMzA4MzA1N1oXDTIzMTEwMTA4
      MzA1N1owGDEWMBQGA1UEAxMNc2VsZnNpZ25lZC1jYTBZMBMGByqGSM49AgEGCCqG
      SM49AwEHA0IABBqkD9lAwrnXCo/OOdpKzJROSbzCeC73FE/Np+/j8n862Ox5xYwJ
      tAp/o3RDpDa3omhzqZoYumqdtneozGFY/zGjQjBAMA4GA1UdDwEB/wQEAwICpDAP
      BgNVHRMBAf8EBTADAQH/MB0GA1UdDgQWBBSHoKjXzfxfudt3mVGU3VudSi6TrTAK
      BggqhkjOPQQDAgNHADBEAiA5z0/TpD7T6vRpN9VQisQMtum/Zg3tThnYA5nFnAW7
      KAIgKR/EzW7f8BPcnlcgXt5kp3Fdqye1SAkjxZzr2a0Zik8=
      -----END CERTIFICATE-----
    name: https
    url: https://broker-ingress.knative-eventing.svc.cluster.local/transport-encryption-test/br
  annotations:
    knative.dev/channelAPIVersion: messaging.knative.dev/v1
    knative.dev/channelAddress: https://imc-dispatcher.knative-eventing.svc.cluster.local/transport-encryption-test/br-kne-trigger
    knative.dev/channelCACerts: |
      -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
      MIIBbzCCARagAwIBAgIQAur7vdEcreEWSEQatCYlNjAKBggqhkjOPQQDAjAYMRYw
      FAYDVQQDEw1zZWxmc2lnbmVkLWNhMB4XDTIzMDgwMzA4MzA1N1oXDTIzMTEwMTA4
      MzA1N1owGDEWMBQGA1UEAxMNc2VsZnNpZ25lZC1jYTBZMBMGByqGSM49AgEGCCqG
      SM49AwEHA0IABBqkD9lAwrnXCo/OOdpKzJROSbzCeC73FE/Np+/j8n862Ox5xYwJ
      tAp/o3RDpDa3omhzqZoYumqdtneozGFY/zGjQjBAMA4GA1UdDwEB/wQEAwICpDAP
      BgNVHRMBAf8EBTADAQH/MB0GA1UdDgQWBBSHoKjXzfxfudt3mVGU3VudSi6TrTAK
      BggqhkjOPQQDAgNHADBEAiA5z0/TpD7T6vRpN9VQisQMtum/Zg3tThnYA5nFnAW7
      KAIgKR/EzW7f8BPcnlcgXt5kp3Fdqye1SAkjxZzr2a0Zik8=
      -----END CERTIFICATE-----
    knative.dev/channelKind: InMemoryChannel
    knative.dev/channelName: br-kne-trigger
  conditions:
  # ...

Sending events to the Broker using HTTPS endpoints:

kubectl run curl -n transport-encryption-test --image=curlimages/curl -i --tty -- sh

Save the CA certs from the Broker's .status.address.CACerts field into /tmp/cacerts.pem

cat <<EOF >> /tmp/cacerts.pem
-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
MIIBbzCCARagAwIBAgIQAur7vdEcreEWSEQatCYlNjAKBggqhkjOPQQDAjAYMRYw
FAYDVQQDEw1zZWxmc2lnbmVkLWNhMB4XDTIzMDgwMzA4MzA1N1oXDTIzMTEwMTA4
MzA1N1owGDEWMBQGA1UEAxMNc2VsZnNpZ25lZC1jYTBZMBMGByqGSM49AgEGCCqG
SM49AwEHA0IABBqkD9lAwrnXCo/OOdpKzJROSbzCeC73FE/Np+/j8n862Ox5xYwJ
tAp/o3RDpDa3omhzqZoYumqdtneozGFY/zGjQjBAMA4GA1UdDwEB/wQEAwICpDAP
BgNVHRMBAf8EBTADAQH/MB0GA1UdDgQWBBSHoKjXzfxfudt3mVGU3VudSi6TrTAK
BggqhkjOPQQDAgNHADBEAiA5z0/TpD7T6vRpN9VQisQMtum/Zg3tThnYA5nFnAW7
KAIgKR/EzW7f8BPcnlcgXt5kp3Fdqye1SAkjxZzr2a0Zik8=
-----END CERTIFICATE-----
EOF

Send the event by running the following command:

curl -v -X POST -H "content-type: application/json" -H "ce-specversion: 1.0" -H "ce-source: my/curl/command" -H "ce-type: my.demo.event" -H "ce-id: 6cf17c7b-30b1-45a6-80b0-4cf58c92b947" -d '{"name":"Knative Demo"}' --cacert /tmp/cacert
s.pem https://broker-ingress.knative-eventing.svc.cluster.local/transport-encryption-test/br

Example output:

* processing: https://broker-ingress.knative-eventing.svc.cluster.local/transport-encryption-test/br
*   Trying 10.96.174.249:443...
* Connected to broker-ingress.knative-eventing.svc.cluster.local (10.96.174.249) port 443
* ALPN: offers h2,http/1.1
* TLSv1.3 (OUT), TLS handshake, Client hello (1):
*  CAfile: /tmp/cacerts.pem
*  CApath: none
* TLSv1.3 (IN), TLS handshake, Server hello (2):
* TLSv1.3 (IN), TLS handshake, Encrypted Extensions (8):
* TLSv1.3 (IN), TLS handshake, Certificate (11):
* TLSv1.3 (IN), TLS handshake, CERT verify (15):
* TLSv1.3 (IN), TLS handshake, Finished (20):
* TLSv1.3 (OUT), TLS change cipher, Change cipher spec (1):
* TLSv1.3 (OUT), TLS handshake, Finished (20):
* SSL connection using TLSv1.3 / TLS_AES_128_GCM_SHA256
* ALPN: server accepted h2
* Server certificate:
*  subject: O=local
*  start date: Aug  3 08:31:02 2023 GMT
*  expire date: Nov  1 08:31:02 2023 GMT
*  subjectAltName: host "broker-ingress.knative-eventing.svc.cluster.local" matched cert's "broker-ingress.knative-eventing.svc.cluster.local"
*  issuer: CN=selfsigned-ca
*  SSL certificate verify ok.
* TLSv1.3 (IN), TLS handshake, Newsession Ticket (4):
* using HTTP/2
* h2 [:method: POST]
* h2 [:scheme: https]
* h2 [:authority: broker-ingress.knative-eventing.svc.cluster.local]
* h2 [:path: /transport-encryption-test/br]
* h2 [user-agent: curl/8.2.1]
* h2 [accept: */*]
* h2 [content-type: application/json]
* h2 [ce-specversion: 1.0]
* h2 [ce-source: my/curl/command]
* h2 [ce-type: my.demo.event]
* h2 [ce-id: 6cf17c7b-30b1-45a6-80b0-4cf58c92b947]
* h2 [content-length: 23]
* Using Stream ID: 1
> POST /transport-encryption-test/br HTTP/2
> Host: broker-ingress.knative-eventing.svc.cluster.local
> User-Agent: curl/8.2.1
> Accept: */*
> content-type: application/json
> ce-specversion: 1.0
> ce-source: my/curl/command
> ce-type: my.demo.event
> ce-id: 6cf17c7b-30b1-45a6-80b0-4cf58c92b947
> Content-Length: 23
> 
< HTTP/2 202 
< allow: POST, OPTIONS
< content-length: 0
< date: Thu, 03 Aug 2023 10:08:22 GMT
< 
* Connection #0 to host broker-ingress.knative-eventing.svc.cluster.local left intact

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